Born March 23, 1869[n 1]
Cavite El Viejo, Spanish East Indies (now Kawit, Cavite, Philippines)
Died February 6, 1964 (aged 94)
Quezon City, Philippines
Resting place Aguinaldo Shrine, Kawit, Cavite, Philippines
Political party Katipunan
National Socialist Party
Spouse(s) Hilaria del Rosario
Children Carmen Aguinaldo-Melencio
Emilio Aguinaldo, Jr
Alma mater Colegio de San Juan de Letran
Profession Soldier, Manager, Teacher
Religion Roman CatholicismHis Life and contibution in the field of Philippine History
Emilio Aguinaldo was first President of the Republic of the Philippines hi is not just an extraordinary leader but a has a heroic heart that marks in every life of the Filipinos .Under his presidential years there were huge of traumatic battles he conquered he was trying to contend the Spaniards and other foreign invaders here in the Philippines .He was able to declare dictatorial government for us the Filipinos could attain independence against the Spaniards .During the battle his really using his brilliant mind for him to attain a victorious battle that that would really make the Filipinos to also rise up their rights as a part and the one and only owner of the country.
No one could ever forget a President like him ,because his not fighting for the Spaniards as well as the Americans .A millions of praising and thanked him is not enough to pay for all the hardship he had passed for the the Filipinos could cherished as what we have now. We must adore and be greatfull because he was really their to enlight the future of the new generation
Early Life and career
On January 1, 1896, he married Hilaria Del Rosario (1877–1921), and the couple had five children: Carmen Aguinaldo-Melencio, Emilio Aguinaldo, Jr, Maria Aguinaldo-Poblete, Cristina Aguinaldo-Suntay, and Miguel Aguinaldo. Hilaria died of leprosy on March 6, 1921 at the age of 44.
His great-grandchildren are elusive to the public eye and continue to support Aguinaldo's traditions, such as awarding the Philippine Military Academy Aguinaldo Saber Award. The youngest, Emiliana, currently continues to confer the award.
In 1894, Aguinaldo joined the Katipunan or the K.K.K., a secret organization led by Andrés Bonifacio, dedicated to the expulsion of the Spanish and independence of the Philippines through armed force.Aguinaldo used the nom de guerre Magdalo, in honor of Mary Magdalene. His local chapter of the Katipunan, headed by his cousin Baldomero Aguinaldo, was also called Magdalo.
The Katipunan revolt against the Spanish began in the last week of August 1896 in San Juan del Monte (now part of Metro Manila). However, Aguinaldo and other Cavite rebels initially refused to join in the offensive due to lack of arms. Their absence contributed to Bonifacio's defeat. While Bonifacio and other rebels were forced to resort to guerrilla warfare, Aguinaldo and the Cavite rebels won major victories in set-piece battles, temporarily driving the Spanish out of their area.
On February 17, 1897, Aguinaldo and a group of katipuneros defeated Spanish forces led by General Camilo de Polavieja at the Battle of Zapote Bridge in Cavite. General Edilberto Evangelista, civil engineer, revolutionary and trench builder, was killed in the battle. The province of Cavite gradually emerged as the Revolution's hotbed, and the Aguinaldo-led katipuneros had a string of victories there.
Bonifacio refused to recognize the revolutionary government headed by Aguinaldo and attempted to reassert his authority, accusing the Aguinaldo faction of treason and by issuing orders contravening orders issued by the Aguinaldo faction.At Aguinaldo's orders, Bonifacio and his brothers were arrested and, in a mock trial lasting one day, convicted of treason, and sentenced to death.After some vacillation, Aguinaldo commuted the death sentence, but canceled his commutation order after being convinced by Generial Manuel Noriel, President of the Council of War the death sentence, and others prominent in his government that the sentence must stand. Andrés and Procopio were executed by firing squad on May 10, 1897 at Mount Hulog, about four kilometers west of Maragondon, Cavite.
Philppine American War
On the night of February 4, 1899, a Filipino was shot by an American sentry. This incident is considered the beginning of the Philippine-American War, and open fighting soon broke out between American troops and pro-independence Filipinos. Superior American firepower drove Filipino troops away from the city, and the Malolos government had to move from one place to another.Aguinaldo led resistance to the Americans, then retreated to northern Luzon with the Americans on his trail.
On June 2, 1899, a telegram from Aguinaldo was received by Luna, asking him to proceed to Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija for a meeting at the Cabanatuan Church Convent. However, treachery was afoot. Three days later (June 5), when Luna arrived, he learned Aguinaldo was not at the appointed place. As Luna was about to depart, he was shot, then stabbed to death by Aguinaldo's men. Luna was later buried in the churchyard; no investigation was made, and Luna's assassins were never punished.
After Luna's assassination, Aguinaldo assumed command of the Filipino forces. Without Luna's military expertise, Filipino forces encountered disaster everywhere. In November 1899, Aguinaldo and his staff fled northwards from the advancing Americans, to Palanan, Isabela, where he established a new headquarters. A picked force of 60 men under General Gregorio del Pilar fought a heroic battle at Tirad Pass in Ilovos Sur against a much larger American force to delay the American advance to ensure Emilio Aguinaldo's escape. Del Pilar was killed in the battle along with 52 others of the defending force. At the time of the battle, Aguinaldo and his party were encamped in Cervantes, about 10km south of the pass. After being notified by a rider of the outcome of the battle and the death of Del Pilar, Aguinaldo ordered that camp be broken, and departed with his party for Cayan settlement.
Less than two years later, on March 23, 1901, Aguinaldo was captured at his headquarters in Palanan by U.S. General Frederick Funston, with the help of Macabebe trackers. The American task force gained access to Aguinaldo's camp by pretending to be captured prisoners. Aguinaldo never received the weapons he ordered scheduled for delivery on July 2, 1901 at Digoyo in Palanan also. Aguinaldo was confined at the Malacañan Palace in what is today's State Dining Room. On April 19, 1901, Aguinaldo took an oath of allegiance to the United States, formally ending the First Republic and recognizing the sovereignty of the United States over the Philippines.After Aguinaldo's surrender, some Filipino commanders continued the revolution. On July 30, 1901, General Miguel Malvar issued a manifesto saying, "Forward, without ever turning back. ... All wars of independence have been obliged to suffer terrible tests!" General Malvar surrendered to U.S forces in Lipa, Batangas on April 16, 1902. The war was formally ended by a unilateral proclamation of general amnesty by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt on July 4, 1902