Friday, 12 October 2012

Extraordinary Heroes

        As a Filipino we must be very proud for we have these extraordinary heroes who made great difference in the country .They risk their  lives for us to attain independence against foreign colonizers now these meaningful life in every Filipinos  of today is the reflection of heroic deeds  of the Filipinos who were eager to fight just to have independence .Some of  us don't value their effort on serving the  Filipino people others don't care at all ,however as a Filipino we must not forgot that they were always part of the Philippine History a history that marks in every hearts and soul of the Filipino people.We  couldn't measure how hard and  traumatic their lives before they were not living here on earth just to enjoy and cherished their lives instead they prefer to struggle and to continue fighting their rights as a Filipino against the colonizers.A history won't  came back again ,yet as a Filipino we must be triumphant to conquer the fears of yesterday we can't correct the dark nightmare on the past but, we can used them to be a better Filipino citizen in the country and lets make great difference in this new generation in the Philippine history .

      Though we are not inherited  the the blood of being a  hero and we can't actually follow what these heroes  did yet,we can also serve the country and its people  in a simple yet, amazing things we can also be a great hero.A real heroes is not only recognize according to his good deeds towards his fellow men ,but of a good heart that is willing to serve the country and the Filipino people with a pure heart and brilliant mind that could totally know that needs of his fellow men without any expected things in return.These heroes were not a perfect person they also had mistakes but then they won't let their fears and tears to be defeated instead until their last part of their lives they keep on serving the country and the Filipino people.


Thursday, 4 October 2012

Marcelo H. Del Pilar

Born Marcelo Hilario del Pilar y Gatmaitán
August 30, 1850
Bulacán, Bulacan, Philippines
Died July 4, 1896 (aged 45)
Barcelona, Spain
Nationality  Filipino
Alma mater Colegio de San José
Universidad de Santo Tomás
Occupation Writer, journalist, lawyer
Organization La Solidaridad

 He began his studies in the school of José Flores; he then passed to the Colegio de San José, and then to the Universidad de Santo Tomás. A disagreement with the parish priest of San Miguel, Manila, concerning baptismal fees, in 1870, caused a regrettable break of eight years in the fourth year in the study of his profession, jurisprudence. Out of school, he worked as oficial de mesa in Pampanga and Quiapo. After finishing law in 1880,he worked for the Manila Royal Audiencia.

Considered the Father of Philippine Masonry, del Pilar spearheaded the secret organization of masonic lodges in the Philippines as a means of strengthening the Propaganda Movement. He became a freemason in 1889 and became a close friend of Miguel Morayta Sagrario, a professor at the Universidad Central de Madrid and Grand Master of Masons of the Grande Oriente Español   

Del Pilar was an indefatigable writer. His fluency in both Spanish and Tagalog enabled him to compose a series of anti-friar pamphlets in Tagalog. He wrote Dasalan at Tocsohan (Prayerbook and Teasing Game), a satire on the friars' hypocrisy, licentiousness and cupidity, which consists of parodies of the Sign of the Cross, the Act of Contrition, the Lord's Prayer, the Hail Mary, and the catechism. He also wrote pamphlets that characterized the friars as exploitative and repressive, such as La Soberanía Monacal en Filipinas (Monastic Sovereignty in the Philippines), Ang Cadaquilaan ng Dios (God's Goodness), and La Frailocracia Filipina (Frailocracy in the Philippines). The long poem Sagót ng España sa Hibíc ng Filipinas (The Response of Spain to the Pleas of the Philippines) was an answer to Hermenegildo Flores' Hibíc ng Filipinas sa Inang España (The Plea of the Philippines to Mother Spain), which portrayed the exploitation of indios (natives) under the friars. His Caiigat Cayó (Be Like the Eel) is also well-known. In it he defended Rizal's Noli Me Tangere, and attacked the friars as traffickers in religion. As a parodist, del Pilar was at his best at Pasióng Dapat Ipag-alab nang Puso nang Tauong Babasa (Passion That Should Inflame the Heart of the Reader), where he uses popular 'sacramental' forms for his anti-friar attacks. In short poems such as Dupluhan, del Pilar gave an inflammatory content to the form of the duplo.

Emilio Aguinaldo

Born March 23, 1869[n 1]
Cavite El Viejo, Spanish East Indies (now Kawit, Cavite, Philippines)
Died February 6, 1964 (aged 94)
Quezon City, Philippines
Resting place Aguinaldo Shrine, Kawit, Cavite, Philippines
Political party Katipunan
National Socialist Party
Spouse(s) Hilaria del Rosario
María Agoncillo
Children Carmen Aguinaldo-Melencio
Emilio Aguinaldo, Jr
Maria Aguinaldo-Poblete
Cristina Aguinaldo-Suntay
Miguel Aguinaldo
Alma mater Colegio de San Juan de Letran
Profession Soldier, Manager, Teacher
Religion Roman Catholicism
His Life and contibution in the field of Philippine History
Emilio Aguinaldo was first President of the Republic of the Philippines hi is not just an extraordinary leader  but a has a  heroic heart that marks in every life of the Filipinos .Under his presidential years  there were huge of traumatic battles  he conquered he  was trying to contend the Spaniards and other foreign invaders  here in the Philippines .He was able to declare dictatorial government  for us the Filipinos could attain independence against the Spaniards .During the battle his really using his brilliant mind for him to attain a victorious battle that that would really make the Filipinos  to also rise up their rights as a part and the one and  only owner of the country. 

No one could ever forget a President like him ,because his not fighting for  the Spaniards as well as the Americans .A millions of  praising and thanked him is not enough to pay for all the hardship  he had passed for the  the Filipinos  could cherished as what we have  now. We must adore and be greatfull because   he was really their to enlight the future of the  new generation

Early Life and career

On January 1, 1896, he married Hilaria Del Rosario (1877–1921), and the couple had five children: Carmen Aguinaldo-Melencio, Emilio Aguinaldo, Jr, Maria Aguinaldo-Poblete, Cristina Aguinaldo-Suntay, and Miguel Aguinaldo. Hilaria died of leprosy on March 6, 1921 at the age of 44.
His great-grandchildren are elusive to the public eye and continue to support Aguinaldo's traditions, such as awarding the Philippine Military Academy Aguinaldo Saber Award. The youngest, Emiliana, currently continues to confer the award.

Philippine Revolution

In 1894, Aguinaldo joined the Katipunan or the K.K.K., a secret organization led by Andrés Bonifacio, dedicated to the expulsion of the Spanish and independence of the Philippines through armed force.Aguinaldo used the nom de guerre Magdalo, in honor of Mary Magdalene. His local chapter of the Katipunan, headed by his cousin Baldomero Aguinaldo, was also called Magdalo.
The Katipunan revolt against the Spanish began in the last week of August 1896 in San Juan del Monte (now part of Metro Manila). However, Aguinaldo and other Cavite rebels initially refused to join in the offensive due to lack of arms. Their absence contributed to Bonifacio's defeat. While Bonifacio and other rebels were forced to resort to guerrilla warfare, Aguinaldo and the Cavite rebels won major victories in set-piece battles, temporarily driving the Spanish out of their area.
On February 17, 1897, Aguinaldo and a group of katipuneros defeated Spanish forces led by General Camilo de Polavieja at the Battle of Zapote Bridge in Cavite. General Edilberto Evangelista, civil engineer, revolutionary and trench builder, was killed in the battle. The province of Cavite gradually emerged as the Revolution's hotbed, and the Aguinaldo-led katipuneros had a string of victories there.
Bonifacio refused to recognize the revolutionary government headed by Aguinaldo and attempted to reassert his authority, accusing the Aguinaldo faction of treason and by issuing orders contravening orders issued by the Aguinaldo faction.At Aguinaldo's orders, Bonifacio and his brothers were arrested and, in a mock trial lasting one day, convicted of treason, and sentenced to death.After some vacillation, Aguinaldo commuted the death sentence, but canceled his commutation order after being convinced by Generial Manuel Noriel, President of the Council of War the death sentence, and others prominent in his government that the sentence must stand. Andrés and Procopio were executed by firing squad on May 10, 1897 at Mount Hulog, about four kilometers west of Maragondon, Cavite.

Philppine American  War
On the night of February 4, 1899, a Filipino was shot by an American sentry. This incident is considered the beginning of the Philippine-American War, and open fighting soon broke out between American troops and pro-independence Filipinos. Superior American firepower drove Filipino troops away from the city, and the Malolos government had to move from one place to another.Aguinaldo led resistance to the Americans, then retreated to northern Luzon with the Americans on his trail.

On June 2, 1899, a telegram from Aguinaldo was received by Luna, asking him to proceed to Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija for a meeting at the Cabanatuan Church Convent. However, treachery was afoot. Three days later (June 5), when Luna arrived, he learned Aguinaldo was not at the appointed place. As Luna was about to depart, he was shot, then stabbed to death by Aguinaldo's men. Luna was later buried in the churchyard; no investigation was made, and Luna's assassins were never punished.
After Luna's assassination, Aguinaldo assumed command of the Filipino forces. Without Luna's military expertise, Filipino forces encountered disaster everywhere. In November 1899, Aguinaldo and his staff fled northwards from the advancing Americans, to Palanan, Isabela, where he established a new headquarters. A picked force of 60 men under General Gregorio del Pilar fought a heroic battle at Tirad Pass in Ilovos Sur against a much larger American force to delay the American advance to ensure Emilio Aguinaldo's escape. Del Pilar was killed in the battle along with 52 others of the defending force. At the time of the battle, Aguinaldo and his party were encamped in Cervantes, about 10km south of the pass. After being notified by a rider of the outcome of the battle and the death of Del Pilar, Aguinaldo ordered that camp be broken, and departed with his party for Cayan settlement.
Less than two years later, on March 23, 1901, Aguinaldo was captured at his headquarters in Palanan by U.S. General Frederick Funston, with the help of Macabebe trackers. The American task force gained access to Aguinaldo's camp by pretending to be captured prisoners. Aguinaldo never received the weapons he ordered scheduled for delivery on July 2, 1901 at Digoyo in Palanan also. Aguinaldo was confined at the Malacañan Palace in what is today's State Dining Room. On April 19, 1901, Aguinaldo took an oath of allegiance to the United States, formally ending the First Republic and recognizing the sovereignty of the United States over the Philippines.After Aguinaldo's surrender, some Filipino commanders continued the revolution. On July 30, 1901, General Miguel Malvar issued a manifesto saying, "Forward, without ever turning back. ... All wars of independence have been obliged to suffer terrible tests!" General Malvar surrendered to U.S forces in Lipa, Batangas on April 16, 1902. The war was formally ended by a unilateral proclamation of general amnesty by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt on July 4, 1902

Apolinario Mabini

1st Prime Minister of the Philippines
In office
January 23, 1899 – May 7, 1899
President Emilio Aguinaldo
Deputy Pedro Paterno
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Pedro Paterno
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
January 23, 1899 – December 10, 1899
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Apolinario Mabini
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
December 11, 1899 – April 1, 1901
Preceded by Apolinario Mabini
Succeeded by Position abolished
Post restored in 1946 and later held by Elpidio Quirino
Personal details
Born July 22, 1864
Talaga, Philippines
Died May 13, 1903 (aged 38)
Manila, Philippines
Political party Katipunan
Alma mater San Juan de Letran College
University of Santo Tomas
Profession Lawyer
Religion Philippine Independent Church

His contribution in the field of Philippine History

           The life of Apolinario Mabini is not that easy he became the right hand of Emilio Aguinaldo where he was also considered as the most loyal employee and a friend of him.In fact during the battle of Aguinaldo by the Spaniards  he was the  one to appoint himself at the center of the battle .He is also known as the first major general during the Presidential years of Emilio Aguinaldo.

He is a hero that is not  easily to be forgotten by many Filipinos,because at the very last part of his breath he dedicated his life to the Filipinos  he disguised the Spanish  so that the Emilio wont lost his life and in order for them to attain independence against the Spaniards  .
Imagine living a life with this that is full of traumatic situation can you still risk your life for the goodness of your countrymen?But this hero never look at for just himself .instead hes looking forward for the brighter future of the Filipinos  and for the next generation.

Mabini began informal studies under his maternal grandfather, who was the village teacher and his mother . Because he demonstrated uncommon intelligence, he was transferred to a regular school owned by Simplicio Avelino, where he worked as a houseboy, and also took odd jobs from a local tailor - all in exchange for free board and lodging. He later transferred to a school conducted by the Fray Valerio Malabanan, whose fame as an educator merited a mention in José Rizal's novel El Filibusterismo.
In 1881 Mabini received a scholarship to go to the Colegio de San Juan de Letran in Manila. An anecdote about his stay there says that a professor there decided to pick on him because his shabby clothing clearly showed he was poor. Mabini amazed the professor by answering a series of very difficult questions with ease. His studies at Letran were periodically interrupted by a chronic lack of funds, and he earned money for his board and lodging by teaching children.

The 1896 Revolution
Believing that the Reform Movement still had a chance to achieve success, Mabini did not immediately support the Philippine Revolution. He became part of the La Liga Filipina wherein they would write instead of revolt and chose that they would rather be a colony of Spain rather than having a big revolution for their freedom. When José Rizal, part of the "La Liga Filipina", was executed in December that year, however, he changed his mind and gave the revolution his wholehearted support.
In 1898, while vacationing in Los Baños, Laguna, Emilio Aguinaldo sent for him. It took hundreds of men taking turns carrying his hammock to portage Mabini to Kawit. Aguinaldo, upon seeing Mabini's physical condition, must have entertained second thoughts in calling for his help.
Mabini was most active during the Spanish–American War when he served as the chief adviser for General Aguinaldo after the Philippine Declaration of Independence on June 12. He drafted decrees and edited the first ever constitution in Asia (the Malolos Constitution) for the First Philippine Republic, including the framework of the revolutionary government which was implemented in Malolos in 1899.

Prime Minister of the Philippines
Apolinario Mabini was appointed prime minister and was also foreign minister of the newly independent dictatorial government of Aguinaldo on January 2, 1899. Eventually, the government declared the first Philippine republic in appropriate ceremonies on January 23, 1899. Mabini then led the first cabinet of the republic.
Mabini found himself in the center of the most critical period in the new country's history, grappling with problems until then unimagined. Most notable of these were his negotiations with Americans, which began on March 6, 1899. The United States and the Philippine Republic were embroiled in extremely contentious and eventually violent confrontations. During the negotiations for peace, Americans proffered Mabini autonomy for Aguinaldo's new government, but the talks failed because Mabini’s conditions included a ceasefire, which was rejected. Mabini negotiated once again, seeking for an armistice instead, but the talks failed yet again. Eventually, feeling that the Americans were not negotiating 'bona fide,' he forswore the Americans, rallied the people, and supported war. He resigned from government on May 7, 1899.

Andres Bonifacio

Born 30 November 1863
Tondo, Manila, Spanish East Indies
Died 10 May 1897 (aged 33)
Maragondon, Cavite, Philippines
Cause of death Execution
Nationality Filipino
Known for Philippine Revolution
Political party La Liga Filipina
Religion Roman Catholicism
Spouse Monica (ca. 1880 - 1890)
Gregoria de Jesús (1893 - 1897)
Children Andres De Jesús Bonifacio (died in infancy)

Contribution to Philippine History 
 Its a great privilege of the Filipinos to have a hero like Andres Bonifacio .Though he came from a  lower classs family he still aiming to soar high and that's what he made it when he was also considered as the Philippine heroes here in the Philippines .Aside from that he is also the first president of the Philippines .What a great heroes like him when he also had the same idiologist and dreams towards  the Filipinos and that's to attain peace and independence against the Spaniards .He risk  his life during the battle he  has for  his aiming to fight against them he  had too much courage because of the  Filipinos who were crying for justice and peace in the country . He died for a nonsense reason because of betrayal of power . But then his offering life was not been wasted for He was became a great  and admiring hero in the Philippine.

Bonifacio was the son of Santiago Bonifacio and Catalina de Castro in Tondo, Manila and was the eldest of five children. His father was a tailor who served as a tenyente mayor of Tondo, Manila while his mother was a mestiza born of a Spanish father and a Filipino-Chinese mother who worked at a cigarette factory. As was custom, upon baptism he was named for the saint on whose feast he was born, Andrew the Apostle.
Bonifacio's normal schooling was cut short when he dropped out to support his siblings after both their parents died of illness. He sold canes and paper fans he made himself and made posters for business firms. In his late teens, he worked as a mandatory for the British trading firm Fleming and Company, where he rose to become a corregidor of tar, rattant and other goods. He later transferred to Fressell and Company, a German trading firm, where he worked as a bodeguero (storehouse worker). Bonifacio was also a part-time actor who performed in moro-moro plays.
Not finishing his normal education, Bonifacio was self-educated. He read books about the French Revolution, biographies of the Presidents of the United States, books about contemporary Philippine penal and civil codes, and novels such as Victor Hugo's Les Misérables, Eugène Sue's Le Juif errant and José Rizal's Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. Aside from Tagalog and Spanish, he could speak a little English, learnt from his working for J.M. Fleming and Co.[8]
Bonifacio was married twice, first to a certain Monica who died of leprosy. He then married Gregoria de Jesús of Caloocan in 1893. They had one son named Andrés who died in infancy of smallpox (Chickenpox).

On 7 July 1892, the day after Rizal's deportation was announced, Bonifacio and others founded the Katipunan, or in full, Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang[9] Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan ("Highest and Most Respected Society of the Children[10] of the Country[11]").[12] The secret society sought independence from Spain through armed revolt.[13][14] It was influenced by Freemasonry through its rituals and organization, and several members aside from Bonifacio were also Freemasons.[15] Within the society Bonifacio used the pseudonym May pag-asa ("There is Hope").[2]
For a time, Bonifacio worked with both the Katipunan and La Liga Filipina. La Liga eventually split because less affluent members like Bonifacio lost hope for peaceful reform, and stopped their monetary aid.[15] Wealthier, more conservative members who still believed in peaceful reforms set up the Cuerpo de Compromisarios, which pledged continued support to the reformists in Spain. The radicals were subsumed into the Katipunan.[13] From Manila, the Katipunan expanded into several provinces, including Batangas, Laguna, Cavite, Bulacan, Pampanga, and Nueva Ecija.[16] Most of its members, called Katipuneros, came from the lower and middle classes, with many of its local leaders being prominent figures in their municipalities.[17] At first exclusively male, membership was later extended to females, with Bonifacio's wife Gregoria de Jesús as a leading member.

Philippine Revolution

Start of the uprising
The Spanish authorities confirmed the existence of the Katipunan on 19 August 1896. Hundreds of Filipino suspects, both innocent and guilty, were arrested and imprisoned for treason. José Rizal was then on his way to Cuba to serve as a doctor in the Spanish colonial army, in exchange for his release from Dapitan.When the news broke, Bonifacio first tried to convince Rizal, quarantined aboard a ship in Manila Bay, to escape and join the imminent revolt. Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto and Guillermo Masangkay disguised themselves as sailors and went to the pier where Rizal's ship was anchored. Jacinto personally met with Rizal, who rejected their rescue offer. Rizal himself was later arrested, tried and executed.
He was  leading the Tejeros convention on  22 March 1897. And the Magdalo  group
Aguinaldo later sent a delegation to Bonifacio to get him to cooperate, but the latter refused. Bonifacio appointed Emilio Jacinto general of the rebel forces in Manila, Morong, Bulacan and Nueva Ecija. In Naik, Bonifacio met with Artemio Ricarte and others, including generals Pío del Pilar and Mariano Noriel of the Magdalo who had gone over to his side. Bonifacio asserted his leadership of the revolution with the Naik Military Agreement, a document which appointed Pio del Pilar commander-in-chief of the revolutionary forces.Bonifacio's meeting was interrupted by Aguinaldo himself, and del Pilar and Noriel promptly returned to Aguinaldo's fold. In late April Aguinaldo fully assumed presidential office after consolidating his position among the Cavite elite – most of Bonifacio's Magdiwang supporters declaring allegiance to Aguinaldo.Aguinaldo's government then ordered the arrest of Bonifacio, who was then moving out of Cavite.
Bonifacio has been suggested as a more worthy candidate on the grounds of having started the Philippine Revolution. Teodoro Agoncillo notes that the Philippine national hero, unlike those of other countries, is not "the leader of its liberation forces".Renato Constantino writes that Rizal is a "United States-sponsored hero" who was promoted as the greatest Filipino hero during the American colonial period of the Philippines – after Aguinaldo lost the Philippine-American War. The United States promoted Rizal, who was taken to represent peaceful political advocacy, instead of more radical figures whose ideas could inspire resistance against American rule. Specifically, Rizal was selected over Bonifacio who was viewed as "too radical" and Apolinario Mabini who was "unregenerate.

Dr. Jose Rizal

Born José Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda
June 19, 1861
Calamba, Laguna,
Died December 30, 1896 (aged 35)
Bagumbayan, Manila
Cause of death execution by firing squad
Monuments Rizal Park, Manila
Calamba City, Laguna
Nationality Filipino
Alma mater Ateneo Municipal de Manila, University of Santo Tomas, Universidad Central de Madrid, University of Paris, Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg
Organization La Solidaridad, La Liga Filipina
Religion Roman Catholicism
Spouse(s) Josephine Bracken (1896)
Children Francísco Rizal y Bracken (who died after birth)

Who is doctor Jose Rizal.?
 He is the most outstanding hero in the Philippine he used his  brilliant knowledge to contend  the Spaniards against their injustices by the Filipinos .He became a hero by his own ideologist and  in awaking the Filipinos to fight their rights as a citizen in the Philippines.His ways of fighting was not based  on the sword and guns but he did it in a righteous he proved that it not about a bloody revolution that the people could attain independence ,but it  is also possible to fight them without those things and without those blood shedding on the land.
It is not just about fighting and shedding of tears sothat the people would understand the true meaning of  unity and attaining peace in the country and this hero was really able to prove that thing.

José Rizal's life is one of the most documented of the 19th century due to the vast and extensive records written by and about him.Almost everything in his short life is recorded somewhere, being himself a regular diarist and prolific letter writer, much of the material having survived. His biographers, however, have faced difficulty in translating his writings because of Rizal's habit of switching from one language to another.Jose P.Rizal had crated two novels that marks in the Philippine history this are the Noli me Tangere,and El Filibusterismo.The content of Rizal's writings changed considerably in his two most famous novels, Noli me Tangere, published in Berlin in 1887, and El Filibusterismo, published in Ghent in 1891 with funds borrowed largely from Rizal's friends. These writings angered both the Spanish colonial elite and many educated Filipinos due to their insulting symbolism. They are critical of Spanish friars and the power of the Church. Rizal's friend Ferdinand Blumentritt, an Austria-Hungary born professor and historian wrote that the novel's characters were drawn from real life and that every episode can be repeated on any day in the Philippines.

The Exile in Dapitan
Upon his return to Manila in 1892, he formed a civic movement called La Liga Filipina. The league advocated these moderate social reforms through legal means, but was disbanded by the governor. At that time, he had already been declared an enemy of the state by the Spanish authorities because of the publication of his novel.

By 1896, the rebellion fomented by the Katipunan, a militant secret society, had become a full-blown revolution, proving to be a nationwide uprising. To dissociate himself from the rebellion, Rizal volunteered his services as a doctor in Cuba and was given leave by Governor-General Ramón Blanco to serve in Cuba to minister to victims of yellow fever. Rizal and Josephine left Dapitan on August 1, 1896 with letter of recommendation from Blanco.
Rizal was arrested en route to Cuba via Spain and was imprisoned in Barcelona on October 6, 1896. He was sent back the same day to Manila to stand trial as he was implicated in the revolution through his association with members of the Katipunan. During the entire passage, he was unchained, no Spaniard laid a hand on him, and had many opportunities to escape but refused to do so.
While imprisoned in Fort Santiago, he issued a manifesto disavowing the current revolution in its present state and declaring that the education of Filipinos and their achievement of a national identity were prerequisites to freedom.
Rizal was tried before a court-martial for rebellion, sedition, and conspiracy, was convicted on all three charges, and sentenced to death. Blanco, who was sympathetic to Rizal, had been forced out of office. The friars, led by then Archbishop of Manila Bernardino Nozaleda, had 'intercalated' Camilo de Polavieja in his stead, as the new Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines after pressuring Queen-Regent Maria Cristina of Spain.
The Execution 
Moments before his execution on December 30, 1896 by a squad of Filipino soldiers of the Spanish Army, a backup force of regular Spanish Army troops stood ready to shoot the executioners should they fail to obey orders. The Spanish Army Surgeon General requested to take his pulse: it was normal. Aware of this the Sergeant commanding the backup force hushed his men to silence when they began raising "vivas" with the highly partisan crowd of Peninsular and Mestizo Spaniards. His last words were those of Jesus Christ: "consummatum est",--it is finished.
He wrote his last poem before which is "Me Ultimo Adios " or the Last Farewell. which was later handed to his family with his few remaining possessions, including the final letters and his last bequests. During their visit, Rizal reminded his sisters in English, "There is something inside it," referring to the alcohol stove given by the Pardo de Taveras which was to be returned after his execution, thereby emphasizing the importance of the poem.